What Examinations Should People Take to Identify Diabetes?
How to make a scientific diagnosis for Diabetes? As we know, Diagnosis is due to disorder of glucose metabolism. On one hand, if we take too much sugar one time, or inject a large amount of liquid glucose, we will have Diabetes. On the other hand, if the liver function is damaged, the glucose in the blood will be stored, and blood sugar and urine sugar will rise. So to identify Diabetes, we should make a scientific diagnosis. And in this passage, we will explain the examinations people should take in detail.
Firstly, patients should have an examination about the blood glucose. Rising blood sugar when the stomach is empty is a main evidence which may prove that a person has suffered from Diabetes.
1. When the stomach is empty, the whole blood sugar is ≥6.7 mmol/L, plasma glucose is ≥7.8 mmol/L. If this phenomenon repeats twice, it can be diagnosed with Diabetes.
2. When the stomach is empty, the whole blood sugar is over 11.1 mmol/L, it indicates that insulin secretes little, or is in short. In this case, a person will be diagnosed with Diabetes.
3. When the stomach is empty, if a person's whole blood sugar is over 5.6mmol/L, the plasma glucose is over 6.4 mmol/L, the person should have a glucose tolerance test. If the person can feel obvious symptoms of Diabetes, he should have a blood sugar test two hours after the meal.
4. For a normal person, two hours after the meal, the whole blood sugar is less than 5.6mmol/L, and the plasma sugar is less than 6.4 mmol/L. After the meal, if the whole blood sugar is ≥7.8 mmol/L, and the plasma sugar is ≥8.9 mmol/L, he can be diagnosed with Diabetes.
Secondly, patients should also have a glucose tolerance test, which is called GTT for short. It is to test how islet cells adjust blood sugar, especially for those who have latent Diabetes or doubt that they have got Diabetes. Normally, half an hour to one hour after a person take in sugar, the summit of blood sugar will appear and the blood sugar is less than 8.9-10.0 mmol/L. Two hours later, the value turns normal. Conversely, if after the intake of sugar, the blood sugar is more than 10.0 mmol/L, and it dose not turn normal even after 2 to 3 hours, it will be diagnosed with Diabetes.
Thirdly, people should have a HBALC examination. HBALC means the value of hemoglobin which is combined with glucose. Generally, the normal range of glucose takes up 4%-6% of the hemoglobin. But for patients with Diabetes, the value is twice to four times higher than that in normal person. After treatment, the HBALC will decline to normal condition. HBALC examination can show the change of blood sugar in recent 2 months, which can also do good to judging the degree of Diabetes.
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