A Case of Treating Type 1 Diabetes with Cord Blood Stem Cell in a 16-Year-Old Patient

Patient: Wang Ping, Male, 16 years old, student

Disease History: Dry month, polydipsia, polyphagia, polyuria and weight loss without obvious inducements for six months without obvious inducements, poor spirit.

Diagnosis and admission:

He was admitted to Shijiazhuang Kidney Disease Hospital on 18th, 2011 and was diagnosed as Type 1 Diabetes.

Admission examinations: blood sugar 4 +, ketone bodies – and protein -;

WBC5.6*109/L, RBC4.1*1012/L, Hb130g/L, PTC232*109/L; urine 1800-3000ml/24h, fasting blood sugar14.6mmol/L, blood sugar 23.5mmol/Lafter meals; potassium 3.95 mmol/L, total protein 76g/L, albumin 42.1g/L, globin 31.9g/L, blood nitrogen 2.8mmol/L, creatinine 56 umol/L, 24h urinary protein 0.04G. Glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody (+), islet cell antibodies (+).

Treatment process:

After admission, he was given insulin to reduce blood sugar level; after blood sugar is controlled at a stable level, he was given Cord Stem Cell Transplant for two times. Five days after Stem Cell Transplant, with normal diet and exercise as well as unchanged insulin dosage, low blood sugar reaction appears and insulin usage begin to be reduced.

Comparison of c-peptide before and after treatment:

The amount of c-peptide before treatment: fasting c-peptide 0.24, 0.59 c-peptide one hours after meal, 0.75 two hours after meal, 0.65 three hours after meal. Daily Total amount c-peptide is 23U. Blood sugar fluctuates with fasting blood glucose around 13mmol/l and 23mmol/l after meals.

The amount of c-peptide three months after treatment: fasting c-peptide 0.46, 1.27 c-peptide one hours after meal, 1.56 two hours after meal, 1.08 three hours after meal. Daily total amount of insulin is 12U. Blood sugar is controlled at a stable level, insulin dosage is reduced, fasting blood sugar 6 mmol/l and 9 mmol/l after meals.

Expert's comments

For Type 1 Diabetes, the main cause is islet cell damage and necrosis caused by immune reaction. In the blood of Diabetes sufferers, autoimmune antibodies such as glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody (gad antibody) and islet cell antibodies (ica antibodies) can continue damaging islet cells so that insulin can not be secreted and patients have to rely on insulin.

As stem cells are qualified with self-differentiation, regeneration and immune regulatory functions, original immune networks can be broken down and immune system can be reconstructed. In addition, stem cells can repair islet cells as well other insulin-secreting cells, and improve resistance to insulin. Therefore, five days after Stem Cell Transplant, low blood sugar reaction appears and insulin intake is reduced gradually; three months after the treatment, insulin dosage is reduced obviously and c-peptide is increased effectively.

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