How Much Do You Know About the Symptoms of Diabetes?
Diabetes is a group of metabolic diseases, in which a person has high blood sugar, either because the body fails to secrete enough insulin, or because cells do not respond to the insulin that is produced. This high blood sugar produces a class of symptoms as follows:
1.Polyuria (frequent urination): For the patients with Diabetes, their blood glucose level exceeds the renal glucose threshold (8.96～10.0mmol/L). Therefore, the glucose that is filtered out by the glomerulus will not be totally reabsorbed by the kidney tubules thus causing osmotic diuresis. The higher the blood sugar is, the more the excretion of the urine sugar is. The excretion of the urine sugar can reach as high as 5000～10000ml in 24 hours.
2. Polydipsia (increased thirst): High blood sugar makes the osmotic pressure of the blood plasma rise. In addition, the frequent urination make the body lose lots of water thus causing the cells have dehydration. In return, the dehydration of the cells will make hyperglycemia more serious and make the blood plasma increase again, which can stimulate the thirst center to make patients feel thirsty.
3. Polyphagia (increased hunger): It is caused by the decline of utilization ratio of glucose. When healthy people feel hungry, the different values of glucose concentrations in the arteries and veins will lessen, which can stimulate the feeding center to cause hunger sensation. After eating some food, their blood sugar will rise and the different values of the glucose concentration in the arteries and veins will increase (over 0.829mmoL/L). As a result, the feeding center will be restrained and the satiety center will be stimulated. However, for the patients with Diabetes, their bodies can not produce enough insulin or the cells are not sensitive to the insulin that is produced, so the tissues of the body can not absorb and utilize glucose normally. Although the blood sugar keeps high, the different values of the glucose concentration in the arteries and veins is very small. In fact, the histiocytes are in a “hungry state”, which can stimulate the feeding center to cause hunger and polyphagia. What’s more, as their bodies can not make full use of glucose, a great quantity of glucose is discharged out of body when urinating. So the body will lack energy thus causing bulimia.
4. Losing body weight: Although the patients with Diabetes eat more food than before, their body weights still decline. For the absolute or relative insufficiency of insulin as well as insulin resistance, the body can not unitize the glucose to produce enough energy. As a result, the fat and protein in body will be decomposed, which can cause negative nitrogen balance thus the body weight declines gradually. Once the patients receive proper treatment, their body weight will stop declining and even can increase.
5. Hypodynamia: It is very common among the patients with Diabetes. As the glucose can not be totally oxidized, which means that the body can not make full use of the glucose to produce enough energy. In addition, the tissues of body lose water due to frequent urination, imbalance of electrolyte and negative nitrogen balance.
6. Vision declines: For most of the patients with Diabetes, their vision will decline. The high blood sugar leads to crystal osmotic pressure to change, which can cause rystal osmotic diopter to have a change. Generally, once the blood sugar can be controlled, their vision will become normal.
7. Complications: Diabetes has many complications including acute and long-term complications. Acute complications mainly consist of diabetic ketoacidosis and nonketotic hyperosmolar coma; serious long-term complications include cardiovascular disease, chronic renal failure, and retinal damage.
The common symptoms of Diabetes are described in the above content. It is very necessary for the patients with Diabetes to know more about the disease so that they can treat it as early as possible once they notice the symptoms.
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