Stem Cell Transplant Technology

What are stem cells?

Stem cells are unspecialized cells that have two defining properties: the ability to differentiate into other cells and the ability to self-regenerate.

The ability to differentiate is the potential to develop into other cell types. A totipotent stem cell (e.g. fertilized egg) can develop into all cell types including the embryonic membranes. A pleuripotent stem cell can develop into cells from all three germinal layers (e.g cells from the inner cell mass). Other cells can be oligopotent, bipotent or unipotent depending on their ability to develop into few, two or one other cell type(s).

Self-regeneration is the ability of stem cells to divide and produce more stem cells. During early development, the cell division is symmetrical i.e. each cell divides daughter cells and each with the same potential. Later in development, the cell divides asymmetrically with one of the daughter cells produced also a stem cell and the other a more differentiated cell.

Using the abilities of self-replication and differentiation potential, stem cells can repair the damaged cell, restore the damaged visceral organ and tissue function. After stem cells are transplanted into human body, they can transfer to the renal lesion automatically through the function of automatic homing, then differentiate into various kinds of cells, thus achieve the purpose of repairing renal inherent cell, restoring the renal function, blocking and reversing the process of renal fibrosis. The treatment of Stem Cells for Kidney Disease is mainly to restore these functions, such as renal reabsorption, secretion, neuromodulation and humoral regulating functions, thus improving body system of patient greatly.

The role of stem cells in tissue repair:

During development, stem cells divide and produce more specialized cells.

Organ regeneration has long been believed to be through organ-specific and tissue-specific stem cells. Hematopoietic stem cells were believed to replenish blood cells, stem cells of the gut to replace cells of the gut and so on. Recently, using cell lineage tracking, stem cells from one organ have been discovered that divide to form cells of another organ. Hematopoietic stem cells can give rise to liver, brain and kidney cells. This plasticity of adult stem cells has been observed not only under experimental conditions, but also in people who have received bone marrow transplants.

Tissue regeneration is achieved by two mechanisms: (1) Circulating stem cells divide and differentiate under appropriate signaling by cytokines and growth factors; and (2) Differentiated cells which are capable of division can also self-repair, e.g. hepatocytes, endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, keratinocytes and fibroblasts. These fully differentiated cells are limited to local repair. For more extensive repair, stem cells are maintained in the quiescent state, and can then be activated and mobilized to the required site.

Stem cell therapy for diabetes:

Cells need to be able to self-regenerate and differentiate. Also it has been observed that the presence of all the islet cell types is preferable to only beta cells since the former are better able to respond to changing levels of glucose in the blood. Growth must be balanced with ability to produce insulin. The insulin producing cells tend not to divide and those which divide actively do not produce insulin.

Remarkable progress has been achieved in studying stem cells. The most exciting use of cultured stem cells is the promise for curing many devastating diseases like Parkinson's and diabetes.

Diabetes Mellitus is caused by the decline of islet cells’ function or by the absolute or relative shortage of insulin secretion due to insulin resistance. Thereby, it is a new thought to stop the decline of cell function, and then increase cell number, and save and repair pancreas islet function to the full extent.

Stem cell is the best seed cell to repair the islet cell with its unique biological characteristics, that is, strong self- updating ability and multi-directional differentiation potentials, which provide a brand new way to clinical treatment of diabetes. For the Diabetics, psychological and fine individualized nutrition guidance are necessary besides the specialized medical care and the following detection in order to improve the patients’ correct cognition of the Stem Cell Transplant treatment, which are used to reduce patients’ psychological pressure, invigorate health and make them regain their health after operation as soon as possible.

Stem Cell Transplantation treatment:

  1. Stem cell repairs pancreas islet β-cell;

  2. The pancreas islet can produce new β-cell trough by repairing the pancreas islet;

  3. It can make insulin have the secreting function by the direct reparation of pancreas islet;

  4. The mediators produced by stem cell can stimulate the reproduction of pancreas islet β-cell.

  5. Stem cell repair other insulin-producing cells

Pancreas islet cell can secrete the insulin, and other organs and tissues also have insulin-producing cells which have the same function. The repair and reproduction of those cells by the stem cells can increase the insulin secretion so as to regulate blood sugar level.

The Stem Cell Transplantation can increase the intracellular shipped glycoprotein sensitivity, promote the combination of insulin receptor and insulin and also reduce the insulin resistance function (mainly aims at Type 2 Diabetes).

Stem Cell Transplantation is a new way of treating Diabetes Mellitus. Stem Cell Transplantation can not only repair the pancreas islet and make it reproduce the pancreas islet cell, but also repair the pancreas islet cell once damaged or lost its function. It makes the body adjust the glycometabolism normally, inhibit glucose rising trend and reduce blood sugar index, which equals the construction of the insulin secretion so as to treat Diabetes Mellitus, improve clinical symptom, and restore islet function. It can also make exogenous insulin dose significantly reduced and blood sugar well controlled.

Stem Cell Transplant is a very promising technology in the medical world, and gives hope to many kinds of life-strengthening diseases.

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